The following is an excerpt from a Bloomberg article on the Apple-Qualcomm dispute over patent royalties:

Inventors in the cell phone business strike agreements with industry standards bodies to charge a price that’s “fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory”—“Frand” in industry-speak—as a condition of their inclusion in a given wireless standard. The system provides guaranteed income to the companies that invent the standards and makes it relatively easy for upstarts to build handsets without worrying about getting sued for patent infringement, as long as they pay the prescribed royalties.”

The article is available at the following address: